Guidelines for Author


1. Manuscript

  • Include keywords

  • All figures (include relevant captions)

  • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)

  • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided

  • Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files
    (where applicable) Supplemental files (where applicable)

  • Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked

  • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa

  • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)

  • Ensure ethical concerns on a paper

2. Abstracts

The article or book chapter should be accompanied by abstracts of not more than 300

words. Abstracts should briefly state the nature of the problem, the methodology, and

the findings or conclusions. A list of not more than five Keywords must be written immediately

below the abstract.

3. Electronic copies

Please send an electronic copy of your document and signed plagiarism declaration through

4. Headings and Subheadings

Please send an electronic copy of your document and signed plagiarism declaration through

4.1. If a manuscript has subsections, the following decimal notation should be used for numbering the headings and subheadings:

1. 2. 3.

1.1 2.1 3.1

1.2 2.2 3.2

4.2 However, authors are advised to avoid using more than three levels of subheadings unless the complexity of the argument warrants it.

6. Text Citations

6.1 JPL uses the author-date system of citations in all of its publications. It is theresponsibility of authors to ensure that author-date citations in the text agree exactlywith corresponding entries in the reference list and that all the facts are accurate

6.2 The author-date citation in a running text or at the end of a block quotation consists of the author’s/editor’s last, or family name, and the year of publication. Examples:

  • Author, year, page no.: (Itika 2007, 22-25)
  • Two sources, with one author having two works: (Muya 2009; Mack 2018b)
  • More than three authors/editors: (Kassoguè et al. 1996)
  • Organisation, year, volume, page no: (World Bank 1988, 2:47)

6.3 Citation and Documentation of Sources from the Internet. Authors should first make a note for the quoted paragraph, which should be placed in quotation marks

For example: According to Peter Burnell, “Today, Zambia’s situation resembles much more closely Sartori’s idea of a predominant system, where one party commands, alone and over time, the absolute majority of seats, than a ‘hegemonic system’.’’1

The documentation of sources in the References list or under “Endnotes” for materials cited from the Web should include the names of both primary and secondary sources (website address, titles of the article and of the book/periodical), name(s) of the author/editor, as well as the date of access. The entry under both the Endnotes and the References should thus be written:

1. Peter Burnell, 2001. The party system and party politics in Zambia: Continuities past, present and future. In African Affairs, 100, 239-263. Accessed on (date) from (24 January 2007), Royal African Society.

7. References

7.1 The reference list must include all and only those sources cited in the text and in the notes

7.2 The reference list should provide full bibliographic information on the cited sources and, where applicable, using the following order for books: (i) author/s, or editor/s if no author is listed; (ii) date; (iii) title; (iv) editor, if provided in addition to author; (vi) edition, if not the first one; (vii) volume/s; (viii) title of individual volume; (ix) series title; (x) city; (xi) publisher.

7.3 The details included in reference list entries for periodical articles are: (i) author’s name; (ii) year; (iii) title of article; (iv) title of periodical; (v) issue information (volume, issue number, month or season); (vi) page reference.

7.4 Titles of books, periodicals, plays, and long poems are italicised, whereas titles of book chapters, articles, short poems and the like are given in roman style without being enclosed in quotation marks. Unpublished works are not italicised.

7.5 Titles of periodicals are capitalised in headline style; all other titles in the reference list are capitalised in the sentence style, i.e. only the first letter of the first word in the title and subtitle, proper nouns and proper adjectives is capitalised.

7.6 Examples of reference entries: Adams, M. N., and S. E. Kruppenbach. 1987. Gender and access in the African school. International Review of Education, 33: 437-53.

Apollos, Francis, and Afi Yakubu. 1999. Revitalising traditional African approaches to peace building and reconciliation during an armed conflict. Paper presented at the All-Africa Conference on African Principles of Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation, Addis Ababa, 812 November.

Lardner, Susan. 1980. Third eye open. Review of The salt eaters, by Tony Cade Bambra. New Yorker, 5 May, 169.

Kassoguè, A., M. Komota, J. Sagara, and F. Schutgens. 1996. A measure for every site: Traditional SWC techniques on the Dogon Plateau, Mali. In Sustaining the soil: Indigenous soil and water conservation in Africa, edited by C. Reji, I. Scoones, and C. Toulmin, 69-79. London: Earthscan Publications.

Nganda, Benjamin M. 1998. The equity objective in Kenyan health policy: An interpretation. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 14, no. 1 (January): 65-89.

For web pages Books

Museum Victoria. 2002. Museum Victoria. Retrieved February 12, 2005, from


An online article is often a journal article from a journal which you can access online although it's still available in print. There are several ways to reference these- (see the web pages). Example: Van der Spoel, S. 1995. The basis for boundaries in pelagic biogeography. Oceanographic Literature Review, 42 (6), 474-. Retrieved July 26, 2004, from Science Direct.

Webpage with an author

Buckley, A. 1997. Dinosaur extinction page. Retrieved May 25, 2000 from Department of the Environment and Water Resources. 2007. Threatened species and ecological threatened communities. Accessed 10 September 2007, from

In‐text referencing examples: The effect of human activity on native habitats places many unique species at risk (Department of the Environment and Water Resources 2007).

OR The Department of the Environment and Water Resources (2007) indicates native habitat is changed by human activity which in turn places many unique species at risk. Webpages without authors and years (WE DISCOURAGE USING SUCH REFERENCES)

Use the title of the webpage if there is no author. Use n.d. (no date) if you are unable to identify the year a page was created or revised. Examples: Reference list:

Extinction of the dinosaurs (n.d.) Retrieved May 24, 2000 from Australian wildlife.[n.d.] viewed 10 September 2007 from

In‐text referencing examples: Australia has over 450 species of mammals (Australian wildlife n.d.).

OR Australian wildlife (n.d.) reads that Australia has over 450 species of mammals. For further examples on reference styles, consider the following examples.


A book

Billoski, T. V. 1992. Introduction to paleontology. New York: Institutional Press.

A chapter in a book

Schwartz, M. T., and T. V. Billoski. 1990. Greenhouse hypothesis: effect on dinosaur extinction. In B. T. Jones & N. V. Smith (Eds.), Extinction (pp. 175-189). New York: Barnes and Ellis.

A journal article appearing on specific pages

Argus, M. V., and E. K. Matthews. 1991. Stratigraphic excavation techniques for paleontologists. Journal of Paleontology , 17, 119-127.

Other serial publications

Billoski, T. V. 1987. Triceratops extinction linked to asteroid collision. Science, 79, 75-76.

For newspaper articles Rifkin, J. (2000, July 25). Halt before we reap the whirlwind, Sydney Morning Herald,pp.15,

*If you choose to use abbreviate ‘editor/s’ and ‘edition number’, use Ed(s). for editor(s) and ed. for edition number.

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